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Autor/in: Jeremy Brockes
Autor/in: Jeremy Brockes

Neuroimmunology

Neuroimmunology could be defined as the application of immunological methods to problems in neurobiology but such a definition is so all­ encompassing as to be unhelpful. It is not a precisely circumscribed discipline but it seems worthwhile at the outset to point to three of the major areas of activity. One rather early use of the term was in connection with studies on the immune response to antigens in the nervous system. This includes topics such as autoimmunity in the central and peripheral nervous sys­ tems, the response to neural tumors or viral infections, and the im­ munopathology of such processes. Although not at the forefront of the currently fashionable preoccupation with neuroimmunology, this area continues to be a vital and interesting one from both clinical and basic perspectives. A second very active area is the exploitation of antibodies to iden­ tified components of neural cells, and in particular to those molecules involved as neurotransmitters, in transmitter synthesis and breakdown, and as synaptic receptors. The immunohistochemical detection of these antigens has led to new insights into the functional organization of the nervous system, and reference to such studies is almost a sz'ne qua non for discussions of most central and peripheral synapses.

Taschenbuch 11/2012
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Benachrichtigung

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Immunology of the Neuromuscular Junction.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure of the Neuromuscular Junction.- 3. Antibodies to Presynaptic Element.- 3.1. Choline Acetyltransferase.- 3.2. Synaptic Vesicles.- 3.3. Other Presynaptic Antigens.- 4. Antibodies to Components of the Synaptic Cleft.- 4.1. Acetylcholinesterase.- 4.2. Basal Lamina.- 5. Antibodies to the Acetylcholine Receptor.- 5.1. Sources of Antibodies.- 5.2. Experimental Uses of AChR Antibodies.- 6. Antibodies to Subsynaptic Structures.- 7. Conclusion.- 8. References.- 2. Monoclonal Antibodies to Skeletal Muscle Cell Surface.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Regulation of Acetylcholine Receptors.- 3. Skeletal Muscle Acetylcholinesterases57.- 4. Monoclonal Antibodies.- 4.1. Monoclonal Antibody Techniques.- 4.2. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against Plasma Membrane Proteins.- 4.3. Monoclonal Antibodies to Extracellular Matrix Proteins..- 5. Discussion.- 6. References.- 3. Monoclonal Antibodies to Synaptic Contituents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Preparation of Synaptic Junctions and Hybridoma Antibodies.- 2.1. Characterization of Synaptosomes.- 3. Antibodies That Show Localized Binding in the Brain.- 3.1. Localization of Serum 30 Immunoreactivity to Nerve Terminals.- 3.2. Immunoprecipitation of Synaptic Vesicles.- 3.3. Widespread Distribution of the Antigenic Determinant(s) in Neurosecretory Tissues.- 3.4. Molecular-Weight and Evolutionary Distribution of the Antigen(s).- 4. Summary and Discussion.- 5. References.- 4. Analysis of Functional Cell Sets in the Immune System.- 1. T-Cell Sets.- 2. Functional Roles for Lyt Antigens.- 3. T-Cell Clones.- 4. References.- 5. Immunopathologic Disease of the Central Nervous System.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immunopathologic Injury of the CNS: General Concepts.- 3. Blood Flow and the Traffic of Immunoglobulin and Lymphoid Cells in the CNS.- 4. Models Depicting Immunopathologically Mediated Injury of the CNS.- 4.1. Direct Pathway of Immune Response Injury: Allergic Encephalomyelitis.- 4.2. Indirect Pathway of Immune Response Injury: Antigen-Antibody Immune Complex Disease of the Choroid Plexus.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.- 6. The Use of Antibodies to Define and Study Major Cell Types in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Development of Specific Marker Systems for Identifying the Major Cell Types in Nervous System Cultures.- 2.1. Rat Neural Antigen-1: A Rat Schwann-Cell-Specific Surface Antigen.- 2.2. Tetanus Toxin: A Cell Surface Marker for Neuronal Cells in Culture.- 2.3. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An Intracellular Marker for Astrocytes and Enteric Glial Cells.- 2.4. Galactocerebroside: A Cell Surface Marker for Oligodendrocytes in Culture.- 2.5. Identification of Other Major Cell Types, Including Fibroblasts, Leptomeningeal Cells, and Macrophages.- 3. Monoclonal Antibodies.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. A Monoclonal Antibody to a Common Intermediate-Filament Antigen.- 3.3. Rat Neural Antigen-2: A Cell Surface Antigen Common to Astrocytes, Ependymal Cells, Müller Cells, and Leptomeninges Defined by a Monoclonal Antibody.- 3.4. Neuronal Cell Surface Antigens in the CNS and PNS Recognized by Monoclonal Antibodies.- 4. Applications.- 4.1. Schwann Cell Purification.- 4.2. Comparison between the Properties of Myelin-Specific Glycolipids and Proteins in Rat Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells in Culture.- 4.3. The Use of Cell-Type-Specific Markers to Investigate the Development of Neurons, Astrocytes, Ependymal Cells, and Oligodendrocytes in Dissociated Cell Cultures from Embryonic Rat Brain.- 4.4. Cell Surface Markers Can Be Used to Identify Human Glial and Neuronal Cells in Culture.- 5. Conclusions.- 6. References.- 7. Immunological Studies of the Retina.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Choice and Preparation of Immunogen.- 2.3. Immunization, Fusion, and Cloning.- 2.4. Binding Assays.- 2.5. Immunocytochemistry.- 3. Monoclonal Antibodies That Label Photoreceptors.- 3.1. Labeling of Adult Tissue.- 3.2. Developmental Expression of Photoreceptor Antigens..- 4. Monoclonal Antibodies That Label Müller Cells.- 5. Discussion.- 6. References.- 8. Immunological Analysis of Cellular Heterogeneity in the Cerebellum.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Glial Markers.- 2.1. Astroglial Antigens.- 2.2. Oligodendroglial Antigens.- 3. Neuronal Markers.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- 5. References.

Produktdetails

EAN / 13-stellige ISBN 978-1468441925
10-stellige ISBN 1468441922
Verlag Springer US
Imprint Current Topics in Neurobiology
Sprache Englisch
Anmerkungen zur Auflage Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Editionsform Taschenbuch
Einbandart Taschenbuch
Erscheinungsdatum 25. November 2012
Seitenzahl 280
Beilage Paperback
Format (L×B×H) 22,9cm × 15,2cm × 1,5cm
Gewicht 410g
Warengruppe des Lieferanten Naturwissenschaften - Medizin, Pharmazie
Mehrwertsteuer 7% (im angegebenen Preis enthalten)
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